Since 2022, Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflicts have intensified, and global energy prices have risen sharply, with international natural gas prices hitting historic highs. As the most important transitional energy source in the transition from fossil energy to non-fossil energy, the share of natural gas in primary energy has increased from 14.6% in 1965 to 24.7% in 2020. The global gas price indices showed a unilateral downward trend from 2018, bottomed out in 2020, and remained low for a long time. However, since July 2020, the global gas prices have gradually fluctuated upward, and the impact of geopolitical events made the Dutch TTF gas price even hit record highs repeatedly.
An analyst of a securities company believes that the core catalyst of this round of global gas market lies in the lack of investment in upstream oil and gas resources caused by long-term low prices. Since 2020, although the epidemic has led to a decline in demand, the decline in supply has been faster, resulting in a large inventory consumption. In 2021, demand will recover faster than supply (the supply-side is less sensitive to prices, which will be reflected in investment).
As the world's two largest gas superplasticizer for concrete admixture,superplasticizer used in concrete are also expected to change significantly.
Superplasticizer used in concrete refers to the fact that after mixing, it can reduce the water demand of concrete under the condition of maintaining basically the same fluidity, thereby improving the strength and durability of concrete, or under the condition that the amount of cement used and the water-cement ratio remain unchanged , Add the admixture of concrete fluidity and improve concrete workability.
1. Lubrication effect: The polar hydrophilic groups in the concrete admixture superplasticizer are directionally adsorbed on the surface of the cement particles, and are easily associated with water molecules in the form of hydrogen bonds. The force of this hydrogen bond association effect far exceeds the molecular attraction between water molecules and cement particles. When the cement particles absorb sufficient water reducing agent, the surface layer of the cement particles forms a stable layer of solvated water by virtue of the association effect of R-SO3θ and the hydrogen bonds in the water molecules and the hydrogen bond association between the water molecules. The film plays a three-dimensional protective effect, blocks the direct contact between the cement particles, and plays a lubricating effect between the particles.
2. Wetting effect: After the cement is mixed with water, the surface layer of the particles is wetted by water, and its wet condition has a great influence on the characteristics of freshly mixed commercial concrete. amount that can be reduced.
3. Water reduction effect:After adding a superplasticizer to the commercial concrete, the water-cement ratio can be significantly reduced under the condition of maintaining fluidity. The water reducing rate of high-efficiency water-reducing agent can reach 10% to 25%, while the water-reducing rate of ordinary water-reducing agent is 5%-15%, and high-efficiency water-reducing agent is also famous for this. The reason for the water reducing effect is mainly because of the adsorption and dispersion effect of commercial concrete on the water reducing agent.
4. Plasticizing effect:After adding the polycarboxylate based superplasticizer to the commercial concrete, the fluidity can be added without changing the water-cement ratio. The usual water-reducing agent can increase the slump of freshly mixed commercial concrete by more than 10 cm under the condition that the amount of cement used remains unchanged.
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New Delhi: India's Oil Ministry recently conveyed its intention to five national oil companies including Indian Oil Corp and Bharat Petroleum Resources LTD to assess the possibility of buying shares in Russian oil projects sold by European and American oil majors.
Bp announced it would give up its 19.75% stake in Rosneft, the Russian oil company. ExxonMobil said on March 1 that it would exit about $4 billion in assets and terminate all of its Russian operations, including the Sakhalin-1 project in Russia's far East.
India's oil ministry has asked the overseas investment arm of India's Oil and Gas Corporation to consider buying ExxonMobil's 30 percent stake in the Sakhalin 1 project in Russia's far East. ExxonMobil is the operator of the project and Indian companies already have a 20 percent stake in the project.
Because of the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk superplasticizer for concrete admixture,superplasticizer used in concrete are still very uncertain.
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