Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal production -- Australia's ban on exports of alumina and aluminium ore to Russia, including bauxite, will further disrupt supply chains and production at leading aluminium producer Rusal, consultancy Wood Mackenzie said on Monday.
The Australian government announced the ban on Sunday as part of its ongoing sanctions against Moscow for its aggression in Ukraine, saying Russia relies on it to meet one-fifth of its alumina needs. WoodMac senior manager Uday Patel said in a statement that the ban would make it difficult for Rusal to maintain normal primary aluminum production.
Rusal said it was assessing the impact of Australia's move and would make further announcements if necessary. "It is increasingly likely that UC Rusal's only option for alumina procurement will be through a Chinese entity." The Australian alumina ban has also had an impact on the Inconel718 powder prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
The main alloying elements are copper, chromium, and molybdenum. It has good comprehensive performance and can resist various acid corrosion and stress corrosion. The earliest application (produced in the United States in 1905) is nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) alloy, also known as Monel (Monel alloy Ni 70 Cu30); in addition, there is nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy (nickel-based heat-resistant alloy) , The heat-resistant corrosion-resistant alloy in the corrosion-resistant alloy), nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo) alloy (mainly refers to Hastelloy B series, nickel-chromium-molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloy (mainly refers to Hastelloy C series) At the same time, pure nickel is also a typical representative of nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys. These nickel-based corrosion-resistant alloys are mainly used in the manufacture of various corrosion-resistant environmental components such as petroleum, chemical, and electric power.
Category Nickel-based corrosion resistant alloys mostly have austenitic structure. In the state of solid solution and aging treatment, there are also intermetallic phases and metal carbonitrides on the austenite matrix and grain boundaries of the alloy. Various corrosion-resistant alloys are classified according to their composition and their characteristics are as follows:
The corrosion resistance of Ni-Cu alloy is better than that of nickel in reducing media, and the corrosion resistance of oxidizing media is better than that of copper. It is resistant to high temperature fluorine gas, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen fluoride in the absence of oxygen and oxidants. The best material for acid (see metal corrosion).
Ni-Cr alloy is also a nickel-based heat-resistant alloy; it is mainly used under oxidizing medium conditions. It is resistant to high temperature oxidation and corrosion by gases containing sulfur and vanadium, and its corrosion resistance increases with the increase of chromium content. This type of alloy also has better resistance to hydroxide (such as NaOH, KOH) corrosion and stress corrosion resistance.
Ni-Mo alloy is mainly used under the conditions of reducing media corrosion. It is the best alloy resistant to hydrochloric acid corrosion, but in the presence of oxygen and oxidants, the corrosion resistance will be significantly reduced.
Ni-Cr-Mo(W) alloy combines the properties of the above-mentioned Ni-Cr alloy and Ni-Mo alloy. It is mainly used under the conditions of oxidation-reduction mixed media. This type of alloy has good corrosion resistance in high-temperature hydrogen fluoride, in hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid solutions containing oxygen and oxidants, and in wet chlorine at room temperature.
Ni-Cr-Mo-Cu alloy has the ability to resist both nitric acid and sulfuric acid corrosion. It also has good corrosion resistance in some oxidation-reduction mixed acids.
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